vitamins & minerals

Pregnancy Pathway, Pregnancy — Nutrition

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Fresh fruit = vitamins & minerals!!

Fresh fruit = vit­a­mins & min­er­als!!

Ques­tion:

How many extra calo­ries do you need in each trimester to off­set the meta­bol­ic cost of preg­nan­cy?

Answer:

First trimester — 0; Sec­ond trimester — 300; Third trimester — 500 (source: Insti­tute of Med­i­cine).

Keep in mind that you may also need calo­ries for any fit­ness pro­gram you are doing. If you are con­tin­u­ing a pro­gram, the only change is due to the preg­nan­cy.

If you begin or increase your activ­i­ty, you need to take that into account. One yoga class = 100 — 150 calo­ries. One aer­o­bics class = 200–400 calo­ries. Walk one mile = 100 calo­ries.

1 slice whole grain bread = 50-100 calories

1 slice whole grain bread = 50–100 calo­ries

Be sure you read food labels so that you can bal­ance your food intake and your calo­rie out­put. A small woman (under 5′3″ & 130 lbs.) prob­a­bly needs about 1200 calo­ries per day as a base. A medi­um sized woman needs about 1400, and a large woman (over 5′9″ & 160 lbs.) prob­a­bly needs 1600 to 1800 calo­ries. Add your activ­i­ty and preg­nan­cy needs to your base amount.

Ques­tion:

What foods are nec­es­sary for a healthy preg­nan­cy?

Answer, part A:

PROTEIN. Lean pro­teins like turkey and those with omega 3 fats like ocean fish and eggs.…yes! EGGS!

Turkey is a good protein

Turkey is a good pro­tein

Ocean fish 1 or 2 times/wk = good protein & omega 3 fat

Ocean fish 1 or 2 times/wk = good pro­tein & omega 3 fat

Eggs are a perfect pregnancy food!

Eggs are a per­fect preg­nan­cy food!

70–90 grams of pro­tein are nec­es­sary each day, along with  ade­quate water.  These are need­ed to make an extra 40% blood vol­ume required to sup­port the pla­cen­ta.

Answer, part B:

WATER. Two (2) quarts of water…more if you are very active…are need­ed to make extra blood and to pre­vent dehy­dra­tion.

Ques­tion: What else?

Fresh vegetables also provide fiber

Fresh veg­eta­bles also pro­vide fiber

Answer: CARBS. Fresh, col­or­ful fruits & veg­gies pro­vide nec­es­sary vit­a­mins and min­er­als, as well as fiber. Eat 5 serv­ings a day from all the col­ors:  yel­low, orange, red, pur­ple and green, and you will get live vit­a­mins all day long that help your baby devel­op prop­er­ly! Fruits, veg­eta­bles and whole grains are low glycemic index car­bo­hy­drates — the good ones!

Dairy provides calcium

Dairy pro­vides cal­ci­um

Ques­tion:

Do I need dairy prod­ucts and red meat? Can I get the need­ed min­er­als in oth­er ways?

Answer:

Cal­ci­um is need­ed in ade­quate amounts for bones and teeth. It is most eas­i­ly obtained by drink­ing milk or eat­ing cheese, yogurt or cot­tage cheese. Soy, dark green leafy veg­eta­bles and cal­ci­um for­ti­fied juice are alter­na­tives.

Iron is nec­es­sary for red blood cells to take up oxy­gen. It is found in high amounts in beef,  and less­er amounts in raisins, spinach, and prune juice. Pre­na­tal vit­a­mins are your insur­ance against defi­cien­cies of these essen­tial min­er­als.

Ques­tion:

Any­thing else that’s essen­tial?

Answer:

Yes! Healthy FAT!!

Avocado is an excellent source of omega 6 fat

Avo­ca­do is an excel­lent source of omega 6 fat

In addi­tion to omega 3 fats found in fish, wal­nuts and flax seeds, you need also need omega 6 fats, which are found in avo­ca­dos, olive oil and oth­er veg­etable oils. Healthy fats help bal­ance car­dio­vas­cu­lar con­stric­tion and dila­tion, reduc­ing the risk for hyper­ten­sion.

Last Ques­tion:

What is a healthy weight gain?

Answer:

In 2009, the Nation­al Acad­e­my of Sci­ences revised its rec­om­men­da­tions. It now bases desir­able weight gain on pre-preg­nan­cy BMI (Body Mass Index…google this!).

BMI less than 18.5 (low) — 28 to 40 lbs.; BMI between 18.5–24.9 (nor­mal) — 25 to 35 lbs.; BMI 25.0 to 29.9 (high) — 15 to 25 lbs.; obese women (BMI over 30.0) — 11 to 20 lbs.

Com­ing Next: Avoid­ing Risks.

Pregnancy Pathway, Preconditions — Behavior

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Please refer to Feb­ru­ary 5 entry for entire graph­ic. Today:  Behav­ioral Pre­con­di­tions to Preg­nan­cy.
bubblus_preconditions-behavior

Why do you sup­pose the Amer­i­can Col­lege of Nurse Mid­wives and the Amer­i­can Col­lege of Obste­tri­cians and Gyne­col­o­gists rec­om­mend the min­i­mum time between preg­nan­cies to be two years? Why is it crit­i­cal to eat foods high in B vit­a­mins (includ­ing folic acid) and cal­ci­um dur­ing the child­bear­ing years? How does your exer­cise reg­i­men in the six months pri­or to con­cep­tion affect your risk for some dis­or­ders of preg­nan­cy, such as preeclamp­sia?

Answer:  Your pre­con­cep­tion or inter­con­cep­tion behav­ior affects the course and out­come of your preg­nan­cy. As it turns out, it takes about two years for a mother’s body to replen­ish her stores between preg­nan­cies. Pri­or to a first preg­nan­cy, behav­ior in the six months lead­ing up to con­cep­tion has been shown to affect out­come.

Dur­ing preg­nan­cy, nutri­tion­al and func­tion­al resources must sup­port two beings in one body, one of whom is grow­ing at a very fast speed by bio­log­i­cal stan­dards (think cell time NOT com­put­er time). Essen­tial vit­a­mins and min­er­als (such as B vit­a­mins and cal­ci­um) are tak­en from the mother’s body — already in meta­bol­ic stress due to demands on the kid­neys and liv­er to clear tox­ins and fil­ter meta­bol­ic waste from the fetus as well as the moth­er.

Insur­ing that mater­nal stores of valu­able nutri­ents are ade­quate to pro­vide for both fetus and moth­er is a job that only the poten­tial moth­er can do. By eat­ing a bal­anced and col­or­ful diet of pro­teins, fruits and veg­eta­bles, whole grains and essen­tial fat­ty acids (omega 3’s and 6’s — fish, wal­nuts, olive oil, ava­ca­do, eggs), as well as ade­quate aer­o­bic exer­cise lead­ing up to and dur­ing preg­nan­cy, a woman improves her odds for a healthy infant. Smart behav­ior reduces her risk for con­di­tions that cause immune sys­tem and car­dio­vas­cu­lar dis­or­ders that dis­turb implan­ta­tion, blood pres­sure and blood flow to essen­tial organs.

Fur­ther, avoid­ing risky behav­iors that may lead to sys­temic infec­tions, meta­bol­ic syn­dromes or mal­nu­tri­tion lead­ing up to con­cep­tion is an aspect of behav­ior known as “risk-aver­sion” —  the abil­i­ty to avoid behav­iors that have neg­a­tive con­se­quences. Infec­tion at the time of con­cep­tion (to be dis­cussed in a future post), an extreme lifestyle (either seden­tary or anorex­ic), tox­ic food choic­es, drugs, tobac­co and alco­hol are all behav­iors that incur risk for poor preg­nan­cy out­comes, includ­ing pre­ma­tu­ri­ty and low birth weight — out­comes  on the rise in the U.S.

dtp_mover22As dis­cussed in the pre­vi­ous two posts, behav­ior is inter­twined with genet­ics and envi­ron­men­tal influ­ences. Hav­ing a cer­tain gene muta­tion or an envi­ron­men­tal risk may pre­dis­pose a woman to pos­si­ble prob­lems in preg­nan­cy or the devel­op­ment of cer­tain can­cers, but some behav­iors — espe­cial­ly exer­cise — may mit­i­gate this poten­tial or reduce the sever­i­ty or course of dis­ease. Behav­ior is the area in which we have the great­est con­trol. Exer­cise, healthy nutri­tion and risk aver­sion are the three areas in which women can exert con­trol over their des­tiny as moms-to-be. It’s a dif­fi­cult set-up. We live in a time of instant grat­i­fi­ca­tion of per­son­al acts. But, moth­er­hood is a long-term com­mit­ment to the bio­log­i­cal and psy­chic well­be­ing of a new human who is — and is not — us.