implantation

What is Fetal Programming?

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What is fetal programming? Every person living on earth was first exposed to a uterine environment that helped determine their lifetime health and development. The term for this phenomenon is fetal programming. It is a hot topic and deserves attention.

Accepting the importance of fetal programming places responsibility on the mother-to-be to do all she can to insure her body provides nutrients and oxygen to her growing infant while avoiding possible risks and toxins. At the same time, genetic and environmental factors contribute greatly to the potential for some disorders and problems that arise. Thus, we must be careful in assigning guidelines for acceptable behavior or blame for poor outcomes to pregnant women.

On the one hand, we can all see the negative consequences of something like fetal alcohol syndrome…clearly the result of maternal behavior. Is a pregnant woman whose baby has been damaged in this way guilty of abuse?

But, what if a mother is obese, eats poorly and ends up with an infant with a disturbed metabolism. Is this abuse? What if the mother has an infection that results in cerebral palsy? Or what if she lives near a highway and involuntarily inhales fumes that negatively affect the placenta?

How do you get a healthy baby? Of course, there are no guarantees. There remain many unknown factors that can affect the course and outcome of a pregnancy. Some factors we are aware of, such as avoiding certain fumes or chemicals.  There are some behaviors we know can maximize the potential for a good outcome, such as eating adequate protein, aerobic conditioning and strength training. [Note for new readers…lots of these factors have been covered in our previous posts.]

But, what about all the things we don’t know about?

If these goats eat the wrong grass, will they go into labor?

Here is a cautionary tale:  There is a species of goat that, if they eat a certain type of skunk grass on day 14 (and only day 14) of pregnancy, will not go into labor. Why? Plant toxins in this grass interfere with the development of a small portion of fetal brain, the paraventricular nucleus. This nucleus is involved in the signaling cycle of labor. Without it, the mother will not go into labor!

What are the take-home messages here?

  • Probably no one is ever a perfect fetus…too many possible threats.
  • There are some threats we can avoid…being lazy, over-eating, smoking.
  • There are some threats we cannot avoid, so we do the best we can.

Do the best you can by your baby…aerobic fitness, good nourishment, sleep, good hygiene and de-stressing your life.

Twins & Triplets – Exercise & Nutrition Tips

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A detour: We received a question about nutrition and exercise for multiples. So, here is some information for those with twins and triplets. Add a comment if you have a question or experience to share on this topic! Next comes birth, we promise!!

If one is a girl and one is a boy, they're fraternal!

If one is a girl and one is a boy, they're fraternal!

Nutrition for Multiples:

The primary thing we tell people with twins or more is that the protein needs rise about 30 grams/baby/day above the 70 – 90 grams/day needed for a singleton. Water intake also needs to rise. Avoid thirst and as much as possible, drink until urine runs clear rather than yellow (as best as you can).

Multiples is considered a risk factor, and for each risk factor (multiples, underweight, teenage mom, inter-pregnancy period less than a year) an additional 200 calories is often recommended, with 400 extra calories the upper limit.

Exercise with Multiples:

A critical factor in successful implantation and growth of the placenta appears to be aerobic fitness in the six months prior to and the first half of pregnancy. Once biomechanics become difficult in mid-pregnancy, women with multiples can continue activity safely as long as monitoring show the babies are growing appropriately. A belly support can be extremely helpful when exercising.

Contraindications for exercise include the discovery that one fetus is growing at a significantly slower rate than the other(s), that both/all are too small, that the placenta(s) is/are malfunctioning, or some other condition occurs, such as an incompetent cervix or placenta previa, that would be a factor in any case.

Absolute size difference does not necessarily mean that one baby is growing more slowly, as some fetuses may be a couple weeks younger than their uterus-mate(s) if the mother ovulated twice in the fertility cycle. Or, s/he might be smaller if genetically destined to be a smaller infant at birth. Thus, growth rate is the measurable factor that helps determine if a fetus is at risk of not receiving adequate energy. This can happen when there are two placentas and one placenta is working more poorly than the other, or for some reason there is a flaw in the umbilical cord of an identical. The competition for energy places a slower growing baby at risk.

Protecting Mom and Baby:

The placenta is designed to nourish the baby and will do so at a cost to the mother first if there is inadequate nutrition. Thus, activity to the level the mother can tolerate and following nutritional guidelines above – in the absence of medical complications – produces healthy offspring. Multiples will garner all the same benefits a singleton does.

Note about images:  we strive to use images we own or that are advertised as free on the internet. We want to thank google, bing and yahoo for making free images available.

Pregnancy Pathway, Pregnancy – Maternal Immunological Response

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Today: Maternal Immunological Response…or…the Mother/Fetus Dance!

Maternal Immune Response During Pregnancy

Maternal Immune Response During Pregnancy

Back to work! Thank you for your forebearance while we wrote a chapter for a nursing textbook!

During the course of pregnancy, the mother/fetus dance is ongoing. The maternal immune system and the trophoblast cells continue to influence each other even beyond the implantation.

Because the mother’s immune response modulates near the start of each trimester, the fetus is affected to some degree and mounts a response, as well. For a long time it was thought that maternal and fetal DNA material was not exchanged across the placental membrane, however recent findings indicate that there is some exchange of material. Thus, we all carry some portion of our mother’s DNA and our mother carries some of ours.

What is the impact of this chimeric effect? It depends on how well our DNA gets along!

How does this affect the fetus in utero? The fetus may be affected by clotting issues. Depending on maternal health status s/he may be subject to a stronger or weaker immune system.

How does this affect the mother? Women are more likely than men to develop autoimmune disorders (pregnancy playing a role here), and those who bear male offspring are more likely than those who only have girls to have these disorders.

The maternal/fetal dance goes on….

Be Prepared for Birth!

Be Prepared for Birth!

Pregnancy Pathway, Conception – Prior Sperm Exposure

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Today:  Sperm!!!

For complete graphic, see Feb. 5 or 23 post.

The mother's prior sperm exposure can affect her pregnancy.

The mother's prior sperm exposure can affect her pregnancy.

Not every sperm is your friend! Sperm exposure – like so many exposures – affects our immune system. Women who have babies with more than one father may be at risk for disorders of pregnancy because the challenges to their immune system have been extensive. And, very young women who become pregnant are at increased risk of some disorders because they have had very little exposure to sperm.

In addition, women who have primarily and extensively used barrier methods of contraception may be at risk for disorders for reasons similar to young women with little exposure. Unlike women whose immune system has had too much challenge due to pregnancies by several men, women with little exposure may not have a strong defense against foreign DNA. Please do not take this as a reason to not use a condom – one of the barrier methods along with a diaphragm and cervical cap. Rather, if you use a barrier method of contraception, keep in mind that your body’s adjustment to pregnancy may take time.

For more information on barrier methods, to go the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ online pamphlet: ACOG Pamphlet on Barrier Contracetption.

Another way sperm can affect the pregnancy is that the combination of the mother’s and father’s natural immune responses may be strong against the trophoblast implantation. This is not something  you can know ahead of time. Also, women are eight times more likely than men to develop autoimmune disorders. One reason may be the prenatal exposure to foreign DNA encountered in pregnancy.

Keep in mind that by getting good prenatal care, exercise, sufficient rest, stress managment and healthy nutrition, you do all within your power to have a healthy pregnancy. Your health care provider will determine your risk factors that may affect pregnancy outcome and treat you in an appropriate manner.

Moms and babies enjoy exercise together!

Moms and babies enjoy exercise together!

Once your baby comes, there will be time to maximize health for both of you. Exercising together is great fun!

Getting there may require some patience, but the reward is well worth it.

When you are looking around for sperm, use your head. The same behavior that protects you from infections you never want to get, protects you from sperm you don’t really want to meet. When the time comes to adopt some sperm, find out about it’s credentials!

Pregnancy Pathway, Conception – Health Status

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Today: How the mother’s health status at the time of conception affects the pregnancy.

For complete graphic, see Feb. 5 or 23 post.

The Impact of Health Status at the time of conception.

The Impact of Health Status at the time of conception.

When a woman becomes pregnant, her health can be a major factor how her pregnancy will proceed. If she has been exposed to a virulent infection, it may have an impact on how well the implantation goes. If she has metabolic syndrome, she is at risk for complications such as gestational diabetes.

On the other hand, if she has taken care of herself, is physically fit and well nourished, is well rested and has not been exposed to illnesses that induce dramatic changes in her immune system, she has done her best to create a situation in which her body is best prepared for the rigors of pregnancy.

There are still genetic and environmental factors that can affect the course of the pregnancy, but behavior is the one factor that women have control over. At Dancing Thru Pregnancy we are fond of the notion that if you know a certain behavior is the best for a situation, it is smart to chose that behavior; if you do not, you are sabotaging yourself.

So, if pregnancy is in your headlights, eat right, exercise, and be cautious about exposure to illness and infection. Wash your hands, use one of the hand cleansers, practice safe sex (okay, so if you are trying to get pg, this may change, but in the meantime!).

We welcome comments on what you are doing to be healthy for pregnancy!

Curl-up! Strong abs are part of physical fitness!

Curl-up! Strong abs are part of physical fitness!

Pregnancy Pathway, Preconditions – Behavior

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Please refer to February 5 entry for entire graphic. Today:  Behavioral Preconditions to Pregnancy.
bubblus_preconditions-behavior

Why do you suppose the American College of Nurse Midwives and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend the minimum time between pregnancies to be two years? Why is it critical to eat foods high in B vitamins (including folic acid) and calcium during the childbearing years? How does your exercise regimen in the six months prior to conception affect your risk for some disorders of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia?

Answer:  Your preconception or interconception behavior affects the course and outcome of your pregnancy. As it turns out, it takes about two years for a mother’s body to replenish her stores between pregnancies. Prior to a first pregnancy, behavior in the six months leading up to conception has been shown to affect outcome.

During pregnancy, nutritional and functional resources must support two beings in one body, one of whom is growing at a very fast speed by biological standards (think cell time NOT computer time). Essential vitamins and minerals (such as B vitamins and calcium) are taken from the mother’s body – already in metabolic stress due to demands on the kidneys and liver to clear toxins and filter metabolic waste from the fetus as well as the mother.

Insuring that maternal stores of valuable nutrients are adequate to provide for both fetus and mother is a job that only the potential mother can do. By eating a balanced and colorful diet of proteins, fruits and vegetables, whole grains and essential fatty acids (omega 3’s and 6’s – fish, walnuts, olive oil, avacado, eggs), as well as adequate aerobic exercise leading up to and during pregnancy, a woman improves her odds for a healthy infant. Smart behavior reduces her risk for conditions that cause immune system and cardiovascular disorders that disturb implantation, blood pressure and blood flow to essential organs.

Further, avoiding risky behaviors that may lead to systemic infections, metabolic syndromes or malnutrition leading up to conception is an aspect of behavior known as “risk-aversion” –  the ability to avoid behaviors that have negative consequences. Infection at the time of conception (to be discussed in a future post), an extreme lifestyle (either sedentary or anorexic), toxic food choices, drugs, tobacco and alcohol are all behaviors that incur risk for poor pregnancy outcomes, including prematurity and low birth weight – outcomes  on the rise in the U.S.

dtp_mover22As discussed in the previous two posts, behavior is intertwined with genetics and environmental influences. Having a certain gene mutation or an environmental risk may predispose a woman to possible problems in pregnancy or the development of certain cancers, but some behaviors – especially exercise – may mitigate this potential or reduce the severity or course of disease. Behavior is the area in which we have the greatest control. Exercise, healthy nutrition and risk aversion are the three areas in which women can exert control over their destiny as moms-to-be. It’s a difficult set-up. We live in a time of instant gratification of personal acts. But, motherhood is a long-term commitment to the biological and psychic wellbeing of a new human who is – and is not – us.

Pregnancy Pathway, Preconditions – Environment

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Please refer to February 5 entry for entire graphic. Today: Environmental Preconditions to Pregnancy.
bubblus_preconditions-environment
Our environment is with us all the time. Even if we think we are preventing or controlling environmental factors that impinge on our bodies and minds, they are lurking here, there, everywhere, and they are myriad. Our environmental influences are everything from the air we breathe to the persons who raise or teach us, from the food available to our housing, from our job stresses to cultural forces or even the weather in our part of the world. These things help shape who we are physically and mentally, over the long term and from moment to moment.

08-4Are you prepared to become a parent? One way to tell is to look at your environment…is it healthy? Are you living in a situation that you can count on? What about clean air, safe paint or safe food? What about water? What about people around you? Are they supportive? Does your environment help you stay healthy?

What about your body? Factors in the environment that affect fertility (or lack of it) may determine if  you can even become pregnant, or when you can become pregnant. Think about this:  Women who work together often cycle together. What if you work alone, say at home…does this affect your ovulation? One factor identified in the lowering age of menstruation in girls is the increasing number of hormones in various meats. Another factor is the presence of non-biologically related older males in the household. If these things are known, imagine what is not known about situations, chemicals or people in our environment that affect our reproduction!

There is not an absolute separation of genetics, environment and behavior. If we are genetically predisposed to certain disorders, for example, we may or may not develop them, depending on environment. Some persons are inclined toward autoimmune disorders, but they may do well or poorly depending on the air pollution where they live. Some individuals may develop immune disorders. And, this situation may adversely impact inflammatory responses during implantation.

People who strive to take care of themselves even if they live in horrible conditions can use their behavior to improve their chances for success in everything from a healthy pregnancy to a meaningful existence. Even if genetics and the environment are against the process, behavior can sometimes overcome the odds. Granted, it’s not likely you can produce 6’5″ offspring (see last post on genetics!) if the egg person is 5’2″ and the sperm person is 5’7″, but much is possible beyond that.

So, what do you do about your environment if you are thinking about becoming pregnant? Take stock. Ask yourself what, if anything, might have to change. Ask what you can or can’t accept for your offspring, if you know there are environmental factors that aren’t perfect. Fetuses are amazing creatures; the placentas that supply and defend them are ruthless and will protect a fetus at all costs. But, you can give your body and potential baby a good chance to do well by providing a six month span of a healthy environment leading up to conception. And, healthy for mind as well as body.

When your baby comes into the world, a door opens in your heart to a room you didn’t even know was there. In that room is a certain kind of love and caring that cannot be described. It is love for this being who is and isn’t you. As a mother, you have been her/his environment for nine months or however long you have shared. The womb is a small, protected, organized environment, one that reflects your larger environment. So, take stock now, ahead of time.