Pregnancy Pathway, Pregnancy – Nutrition

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Fresh fruit = vitamins & minerals!!

Fresh fruit = vitamins & minerals!!

Question:

How many extra calories do you need in each trimester to offset the metabolic cost of pregnancy?

Answer:

First trimester – 0; Second trimester – 300; Third trimester – 500 (source: Institute of Medicine).

Keep in mind that you may also need calories for any fitness program you are doing. If you are continuing a program, the only change is due to the pregnancy.

If you begin or increase your activity, you need to take that into account. One yoga class = 100 – 150 calories. One aerobics class = 200-400 calories. Walk one mile = 100 calories.

1 slice whole grain bread = 50-100 calories

1 slice whole grain bread = 50-100 calories

Be sure you read food labels so that you can balance your food intake and your calorie output. A small woman (under 5’3″ & 130 lbs.) probably needs about 1200 calories per day as a base. A medium sized woman needs about 1400, and a large woman (over 5’9″ & 160 lbs.) probably needs 1600 to 1800 calories. Add your activity and pregnancy needs to your base amount.

Question:

What foods are necessary for a healthy pregnancy?

Answer, part A:

PROTEIN. Lean proteins like turkey and those with omega 3 fats like ocean fish and eggs….yes! EGGS!

Turkey is a good protein

Turkey is a good protein

Ocean fish 1 or 2 times/wk = good protein & omega 3 fat

Ocean fish 1 or 2 times/wk = good protein & omega 3 fat

Eggs are a perfect pregnancy food!

Eggs are a perfect pregnancy food!

70-90 grams of protein are necessary each day, along with  adequate water.  These are needed to make an extra 40% blood volume required to support the placenta.

Answer, part B:

WATER. Two (2) quarts of water…more if you are very active…are needed to make extra blood and to prevent dehydration.

Question: What else?

Fresh vegetables also provide fiber

Fresh vegetables also provide fiber

Answer: CARBS. Fresh, colorful fruits & veggies provide necessary vitamins and minerals, as well as fiber. Eat 5 servings a day from all the colors:  yellow, orange, red, purple and green, and you will get live vitamins all day long that help your baby develop properly! Fruits, vegetables and whole grains are low glycemic index carbohydrates – the good ones!

Dairy provides calcium

Dairy provides calcium

Question:

Do I need dairy products and red meat? Can I get the needed minerals in other ways?

Answer:

Calcium is needed in adequate amounts for bones and teeth. It is most easily obtained by drinking milk or eating cheese, yogurt or cottage cheese. Soy, dark green leafy vegetables and calcium fortified juice are alternatives.

Iron is necessary for red blood cells to take up oxygen. It is found in high amounts in beef,  and lesser amounts in raisins, spinach, and prune juice. Prenatal vitamins are your insurance against deficiencies of these essential minerals.

Question:

Anything else that’s essential?

Answer:

Yes! Healthy FAT!!

Avocado is an excellent source of omega 6 fat

Avocado is an excellent source of omega 6 fat

In addition to omega 3 fats found in fish, walnuts and flax seeds, you need also need omega 6 fats, which are found in avocados, olive oil and other vegetable oils. Healthy fats help balance cardiovascular constriction and dilation, reducing the risk for hypertension.

Last Question:

What is a healthy weight gain?

Answer:

In 2009, the National Academy of Sciences revised its recommendations. It now bases desirable weight gain on pre-pregnancy BMI (Body Mass Index…google this!).

BMI less than 18.5 (low) – 28 to 40 lbs.; BMI between 18.5-24.9 (normal) – 25 to 35 lbs.; BMI 25.0 to 29.9 (high) – 15 to 25 lbs.; obese women (BMI over 30.0) – 11 to 20 lbs.

Coming Next: Avoiding Risks.